MAHZAB FRANKFURT (TUGAS KOMPUTER "3")

MAHZAB FRANKFURT


Oleh:

Nama              : Yudha

NIM                : D0310065

JURUSAN SOSIOLOGI

FAKULTAS ILMU SOSIAL DAN ILMU POLITIK

UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET

SURAKARTA

2010

A. PENGERTIAN MAHZAB FRANKFURT

Mazhab Frankfurt ialah sebuah nama yang diberikan kepada kelompok filsuf yang memiliki afiliasi dengan Institusi Penelitian Sosial di Frankfrurt, Jerman, dan pemikir-pemikir lainnya yang dipengaruhi oleh mereka. Tahun yang dianggap sebagai tahun kemulaian Mazhab Frankfurt ini adalah tahun 1930, ketika Max Horkheimer diangkat sebagai direktur lembaga riset sosial tersebut. Beberapa filsuf terkenal yang dianggap sebagai anggota Mazhab Frankfurt ini antara lain Theodor Adorno, Walter Benjamin da Jurgen Habermas. Perlu diingat bahwa para pemikir ini tidak pernah mendefinisikan diri mereka sendiri di dalam sebuah kelompok atau ‘mazhab’, dan bahwa penamaan ini diberikan secara retrospektif. Walaupun kebanyakan dari mereka memiliki sebuah ketertarikan intelektual dengan pemikiran neo-Marxisme dan kritik terhadap budaya (yang di kemudian hari memengaruhi munculnya bidang ilmu Studi Budaya), masing-masing pemikir mengaplikasikan kedua hal ini dengan cara-cara dan terhadap subyek kajian yang berbeda. Ketertarikan Mazhab Frankfurt terhadap pemikiran Karl Marx disebabkan antara lain oleh ketidakpuasan mereka terhadap penggunaan teori-teori Marxisme oleh kebanyakan orang lain, yang mereka anggap merupakan pandangan sempit terhadap pandangan asli Karl Marx. Menurut mereka, pandangan sempit ini tidak mampu memberikan ‘jawaban’ terhadap situasi mereka pada saat itu di Jerman. Setelah Perang Dunia Pertama dan meningkatnya kekuatan politik Nazi, Jerman yang ada pada saat itu sangatlah berbeda dengan Jerman yang dialami Karl Marx. Sehingga jelaslah bagi para pemikir Mazhab Frankfurt bahwa Marxisme harus dimodifikasi untuk bisa menjawab tantangan zaman. Patut dicatat bahwa beberapa pemikir utama Mahzab Frankfurt beragama Yahudi , dan terutama di perioda awal secara langsung menjadi korban Fasisme Nazi. Yang paling tragis ialah kematian Walter Benjamin yang dicurigai melakukan bunuh diri setelah isi perpustakaannya disita oleh tentara Nazi. Beberapa yang lainnya, seperti Theodor Adorno dan Max Horkheimer  terpaksa melarikan diri ke negara lain, terutama Amerika Serikat. Contoh karya-karya terkenal yang dihasilkan para pemikir Mazhab Frankfurt antara lain Dialectic of Enlightenment, Minima Moralia, Illuminations.

B. SEJARAH MAHZAB FRANKFURT

Mazhab Frankfurt mengumpulkan para pembangkang Marxis, para kritikus keras Kapitalisme yang percaya bahwa beberapa orang yang dianggap sebagai pengikut Marx telah membeo, menirukan beberapa cuplikan sempit dari gagasan-gagasan Marx, biasanya dalam membela partai-partai Komunis atau Sosial-Demokrat ortodoks. Mereka khususnya dipengaruhi oleh kegagaln revolusi kaum pekerja di Eropa Barat setelah Perang Dunia I dan oleh bangkitnya Nazisme  di negara yang secara ekonomi, teknologi, dan budaya maju (Jerman). Karena itu mereka merasa harus memilih bagian-bagian mana dari pemikiran-pemikiran Marx yang dapat menolong untuk memperjelas kondisi-kondisi yang Marx sendiri tidak pernah lihat. Mereka meminjam dari mazhab-mazhab pemikiran lain yang mengisi apa yang dianggap kurang dari Marx. Max Weber memberikan pengaruh yang besar, seperti halnya jugaSigmund Freud (seperti dalam kasus sintesis Freudo-Marxis oleh Herbert Marcuse karyanya tahun 1945, Eros and Civilization). Penekanan mereka terhadap komponen “Kritis” dari teori sangat banyak meminjam dari upaya mereka untuk mengatasi batas-batas dari positivisme, materialisme yang kasar, dan fenomenologi  dengan kembali kepada filsafat kritis Kant penerus-penerusnya dalam Idealisme Jerman, khususnya filsafat Hegel, dengan penekanannya pada negasi dan kontradiksi sebagai bagian yang inheren dari rrealitas. Sebuah pengaruh penting juga dating dari penerbitan Manuskrib Ekonomi-Filsafat dan Ideologi Jeerman karya Marx tahun 1030-an yang memperlihatkan kesinambungan dengan Hegelianisme yang mendasari pemikiran-pemikiran Marx: Marcuse adalah salah satu orang yang pertama mengartikulasikan signifikansi teoretis dari teks-teks ini.

Fase Pertama: Pengaruh intelektual dan fokus teoretis dari generasi pertama dari para theoretikus Kritis Mazhab Frankfurt muncul dalam diagram berikut:

Institut ini membuat sumbangan-sumbangan penting dalam dua bidang yang terkait dengan kemungkinan-kemungkinan subyek manusia yang rasional, yaitu individu-individu yang dapat bertindak secara rasional untuk bertanggung jawab atas masyarakat dan sejarah mereka sendiri. Yang pertama terdiri atas fenomena sosial yang sebelumnya dianggap dalam Marxisme sebagai bagian dari “superstuktur” atau sebagai Ideologi: struktur-struktur kepribadian, keuarga dan otoritas (penerbitan bukunya yang pertama diberi judul Studi tentang Otoritas dan Keluarga), dan ranah estetika dan budaya massa. Studi-studi ini juga melihat kepedulian bersama di sini dalam kemampuan Kapitalis untuk menghancurkan prakondisi-prakondisi Kritis, kesadaran revolusioner. Ini berarti tiba pada kesadaran canggih tentang dimensi kedalaman di mana penindasan sosial mempertahankan dirinya sendiri. Ini juga merupakan awal dari pengakuan teori Kritis terhadap ideologi sebagai bagian dari dasar-dasar struktur sosial. Institut ini dan berbagai pihak yang ikut bekerja sama dengannya mempunyai dampak yang hebat terhadapilmu sosial (khususnya Amerika) melalui karya mereka The Authoritarian Personality (“Kepribadian yang Otoriter), which melakukan penelitian empirik yang luas, dengan menggunakan kategori-kategori sosiologis dan psikoalisis, untuk menggambarkan kekuatan-kekuatan yang mendorong individu untuk berafiliasi dengan atau mendukung gerakan-gerakan atau partai-partai fasis.

C. PARA PEMIKIR DAN PAKAR UTAMA MAHZAB FRANKFURT

1.      Theodor W. Adorno

2.      Max Horkheimer

3.      Walter Benjamin

4.      Herbert Marcuse

5.      Alfred Sohn-Rethel

6.      Leo Lowenthal

7.      Franz Oppenheimer

8.      Friedreick Pollock

9.      Erich Fromm

10.  Alfred Schmidt

11.  Jurgen Habermas

12.  Oskar Negt

13.  Karl A. Wittfogel

14.  Susan Buck-Morss

15.  Alex Honneth

D. KRITIKUS TERKEMUKA TERHADAP MAHZAB FRANKFURT

1.      Henryk Grossman

2.      Georg Lukascs

3.      Umberto Eco

E. RUJUKAN

1.       Martin Jay. The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute for Social Research 1923-1950. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1996. ISBN 0-520-20423-9.

2.       Rolf Wiggershaus. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories and Political Significance. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1995. ISBN 0-262-73113-4.

3.       Jeremy J. Shapiro, “The Critical Theory of Frankfurt”, Times Literary Supplement, Oct. 4, 1974, No. 3,787. (Bahan-bahan untuk penerbitan ini telah digunakan atau diadaptasi untuk artikel ini, dengan izin.)

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