Sistem Sosial

Salah satu pendekatan di dalam sosiologi yang menggali konsep sistem sosial adalah pendekatan fungsional struktural. Fungsional struktural memandang masyarakat seperti layaknya organisme biologis yang terdiri dari komponen-komponen atomistis dan memelihara hubungan integratif sistemik agar metabolisme kehidupan masyarakat tetap terjaga.
Menurut Nasikun (1984) pendekatan fungsional struktural sebagaimana telah dikembangkan oleh Parson dan para pengikutnya, dapat dikaji melalui sejumlah asumsi dasar sebagai berikut.
1. Masyarakat harus dilihat sebagai suatu sistem di mana di dalamnya terdapat bagian-bagian yang saling berhubungan antara satu sama lain;
2. Dengan demikian hubungan pengaruh mempengaruhi antar bagian tersebut bersifat ganda dan interaktif;
3. Meskipun integrasi sosial sulit mencapai kesempurnaan, namun secara mendasar sistem sosial cenderung bergerak ke arah equilibrium yang bersifat dinamis; menanggapi perubahan- perubahan yang datang dari luar dengan kecenderungan memelihara agar perubahan yang terjadi di dalam system beserta akibatnya dapat diminimalisasi;
4. Sekalipun disfungsi, ketegangan-ketegangan dan penyimpangan- penyimpangan senantiasa terjadi, namun dalam jangka panjang keadaan tersebut akan berakhir pula melalui penyesuaian-penyesuaian dan proses institusionalisasi. Dengan kata lain, sekalipun integrasi sosial secara sempurna tidak pernah tercapai, akan tetapi setiap sistem sosial akan senantiasa berproses ke arah tersebut;
5. Pada dasarnya, perubahan-perubahan sosial timbul melalui tiga macam kemungkinan yaitu (1) penyesuaian-penyesuaian yang dilakukan oleh sistem sosial itu terhadap perubahan-perubahan yang datang dari luar (extra system change), (2) pertumbuhan melalui proses diferensiasi struktural dan fungsional, dan (3) serta penemuan-penemuan baru oleh anggota-anggota masyarakat; dan
6. Faktor penting yang memiliki kekuatan mengintegrasikan sistem sosial adalah konsensus antar anggota masyarakat tentang nilai-nilai tertentu. Setiap masyarakat, menurut pandangan fungsional struktural selalu memiliki tujuan-tujuan dan prinsip-prinsip dasar tertentu yang mendapat keyakinan kuat dari sebagian besar anggota masyarakat dan dipercaya memiliki kebenaran mutlak. Sistem nilai tersebut bukan sekadar sumber kekuatan yang menyebabkan integrasi sosial, namun sekaligus merupakan unsur yang menstabilkan sistem sosial budaya tersebut.
Dari beberapa asumsi di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa sebuah sistem sosial merupakan sistem dari tindakan-tindakan manusia. Ia terbentuk dari interaksi sosial yang terjadi antar berbagai individu, yang tumbuh dan berkembang dalam standar penilaian umum serta mendapat kesepakatan bersama dari para anggota masyarakat. Yang paling penting dari berbagai standar penilaian umum adalah apa yang disebut sebagai norma-norma sosial. Norma-norma sosial itulah yang sesungguhnya membentuk struktur sosial.
Pengaturan interaksi sosial antar anggota masyarakat tersebut dapat terjadi karena komitmen mereka terhadap norma-norma sosial menghasilkan daya untuk mengatasi perbedaan pendapat dan kepentingan-kepentingan pribadi mereka, proses ini memungkinkan bagi mereka untuk menemukan keselarasan antar satu sama lain sehingga pada proses selanjutnya menghasilkan suatu tingkat integrasi sosial.
Dua macam mekanisme sosial yang mengendalikan hasrat-hasrat para anggota demi terpeliharanya kontinuitas sistem sosial, adalah mekanisme sosioalisasi dan administratoran sosial (social control). Dari anggapan-anggapan di atas para penganut fungsional struktural menganggap bahwa disfungsi, ketegangan-ketegangan, dan penyimpangan-penyimpangan sosial yang mengakibatkan terjadinya perubahan-perubahan masyarakat sehingga memunculkan terjadinya diferensiasi sosial yang semakin komplek, adalah akibat dari pengaruh-pengaruh yang datang dari luar.
Namun anggapan-anggapan tersebut memiliki beberapa kelemahan yang melekat. Kelemahan tersebut terletak pada bahwa pendekatan fungsional struktural mengabaikan beberapa kenyataan, antara lain:
1) Setiap struktur sosial selalu mengandung konflik dan kontradiksi-kontradiksi yang bersifat internal, lalu pada gilirannya justru menjadi sumber terjadinya perubahan sosial;
2) Reaksi dari suatu sistem sosial terhadap perubahan-perubahan yang datang dari luar (extra systeme change) tidak selalu bersifat adjustive;
3) Sebuah sistem sosial dalam kurun waktu tertentu dapat juga mengalami konflik-konflik sosial yang bersifat visious circle; dan
4) Perubahan sosial tidak selalu terjadi secara gradual melalui penyesuaian-penyesuaian lunak, akan tetapi juga terjadi secara revolusioner (Nasikun, 1984: 15).
Dari beberapa asumsi tersebut telah jelas bahwa pendekatan fungsional struktural terlalu menekankan asumsi dasarnya pada peranan unsur-unsur normatif dalam menelaah tingkah laku sosial, khususnya proses-proses yang paling mikro di tingkat individu. Pandangan tersebut menegaskan bahwa setiap individu merupakan kontributor teknis yang melembagakan tegaknya norma-norma sosial demi menjamin stabilitas sosial.
Dari pendekatan konflik dapat disadari satu substansi kodrat sosial yang tidak bisa dilupakan, yaitu dengan perbedaan serta diferensiasi sosial bukanlah sekadar menjadi sarana penyokong integrasi maupun fungsionalisasi peran. Perbedaan juga memiliki peran kontroversial yang memicu merebaknya disintegrasi sosial. Kenyataan ini mendorong terciptanya akomodasi kepentingan yang mampu merombak tatanan sosial untuk menjadi lebih representatif dan berdaya guna bagi masyarakat.

Tentang kiopo

newbie blogger
Pos ini dipublikasikan di Sociology dan tag . Tandai permalink.

93 Balasan ke Sistem Sosial

  1. Thanks so much for your downright post.this is the words that withholds me on track straight through out my day. I have been searching around for this site after being referred to them from a colleague and was thrilled when i was able to uncover it after searching for long time. Being a demanding blogger, i\’m hopeful to watch addeds taking initivative and contributing to the community. Right wanted to comment to show my appreciation for your website as it is extremely animated to do, and many writers do not acquire acknowledgment they deserve. I am distinct i’ll be back and will transmit any of my friends.

  2. Jessica berkata:

    really nice blog thanks for the info!

  3. Ileana March berkata:

    Good blog! I without a doubt genuine love your sort of writing. i’m thinking how I may be notified every time a new put up also has been made. I even have subscribed to your rss feed which genuinely ought to do the trick! Have a nice day!

  4. Venus Farm berkata:

    Hello, I first would like to congratulate you on making such a great site, I definitely found your information very interesting and entertaining. Sports seems to be one of the best entertainment industry of the world today .Checking history people have been socially connected and entertained thru this exciting recreation and enjoy a better life of well being thru this industry.I myself am an enthusiast of football and other activities so i also would like to connect to people so I created a site that is based on sports World Cup sports travel memorabilia news videos soccer football rugby cricket Olympics and other activities , and a fan section really that’s the best part.Please keep up the good work. you can check out my site at http://worldcuplink.com

  5. Awesome stuff you guys got here. I really like the theme of the website and how well you organized the content. It’s a marvelous job I will come back and check you out sometime. http://www.hostinginfinite.com

  6. Zilvinas Juraska berkata:

    Hello there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be ok. I’m absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts.

  7. bigDanny berkata:

    Good post, but it seems no longer relevant

  8. Frankie Dotterer berkata:

    Hello there! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you I genuinely enjoy reading through your posts. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that go over the same topics? Many thanks!

  9. Denna Lofredo berkata:

    This post is very usefull thx!

  10. redwing berkata:

    This is very interested in learning specifically come under, thank you for the talk, I wish you good health.

  11. hot oil berkata:

    Need help please! Has any man or lady acquired any functioning experience while using conditioning computer software from 10BuckFitness? My new private coach swears by these wokouts and he and his son have similarly long gone from simply fire hydrants to tri-atheletes from the last twelve june thru september or so. I’,m in lookup of the very good lifting computer software for bodybuildingFor only 10 bucks- i am considering, but would be thankful for any encounters instead much. Thanks!

  12. I need to many thanks for the endeavours you have obtained contributed in composing this blogpost. i am hoping the identical top-quality publish from you from the lasting as well. In simple fact your soil breaking composing skills has inspired me to start my very own web page now. in real truth the blogging and site-building is spreading its wings rapidly. Your create up may likely be considered a very good design of it.

  13. Goose berkata:

    This article is the best that I have read, Wonderful! Canada GooseIt worth reading for all the people. Love you, blogger.

  14. Iris Herbein berkata:

    Nice article. last thirty days I uncovered this internet internet site and desired to permit you be conscious that i’ve been gratified, heading via your site’s posts. I should certainly be signing equally as much as the RSS feed and should certainly wait around for another post. best Regards, Mateus

  15. Adaline Oilvares berkata:

    I uncovered your web page via search motors even when looking for for the connected topic, your web page demonstrated up up. give many as a consequence of you for the fabulous blog. Amazingg skills! hold on man, you rock!

  16. Johnathon Madler berkata:

    Hi would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re using? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different web browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you recommend a good web hosting provider at a fair price? Cheers, I appreciate it!

  17. Melodie Grauman berkata:

    Wonderful post however , I was wondering if you could write a litte more on this topic? I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit more. Kudos!

  18. I admire the dear information you suggest inside your well written articles. I will bookmark this site and still have my kids examine upward here frequently. I am quite sure they can understand a great deal of recent content listed here over everybody also!

  19. Spouse it is a very nice web publication below. I wanted to state & say that I cherished interpreting your articles or blog posts & they are every alright written out. You wanna make a weblog seem painless lol I’ll attemp to begin a blog later today and I wish it’s one half of practically your websites! Much winner to you!

  20. Montblanc berkata:

    We sell many kinds of Rolex Watches,Omega watches,lv watches.Upon receiving your order, we will begin processing it which takes on average 1-2 business days.

  21. Magdalena berkata:

    meine Muschie kann gefistet werden

  22. Mlb Jersey berkata:

    I found your blog via blog catalog. I thought I’d check out the post as I just wrote on this subject today. You add some great suggestions that I didn’t have. Thanks for the tips.you can visit here Wholesale Nfl Jerseys,if you want to know more aboutCheap Nba Jersey

  23. Goose berkata:

    The blog is wonderful. I learned much from it.Canada GooseThank you very much. May you happy everyday!

  24. stevia culture berkata:

    Hello; great publish for me. Your publish has very good quality. I need to has very good posts like yours at my website. How don’t you arrive around these posts?

  25. Gaye Spannbauer berkata:

    Hello, I first would like to congratulate you on making such a great site, I definitely found your information very interesting and entertaining. Celebrities seem to be one of the best entertainment industries of the world today. If you want to view celebrity photos and interested in the latest celebrity gossip online, getting hollywood gossip on famous people, finding hollywood celebrity pictures and info on famous actors & actresses watch movies and tv shows online and get the hottest breaking news, celebrity photos, fashion, videos and games, Watch movies and tv shows online, check hottest celeb photos and everything. I would suggest you visit http://accesshollyhood.com

  26. Stefan Shovlin berkata:

    GRacias por la informacion, ha sido de gran ayuda, yo me encuentro preocupado por la perdida del cabello.

  27. Francis Setters berkata:

    Hey! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest writing a blog post or vice-versa? My site covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Terrific blog by the way!

  28. Stefan Shovlin berkata:

    Hi and many thanks for the comment you still left on my blog, i’ve also bookmarked your internet site and can return as i uncovered the data within your internet page just like a very good source to my very own pup regards Eddie

  29. best dog foods berkata:

    I cling on to listening in the direction of rumor speak about obtaining boundless internet dependent grant programs so i’ve been looking for near to for the best internet site to obtain one. Could you reveal to me please, especially where could i arrive around some?

  30. Soccer berkata:

    As is well known,soccer cleats is becoming a kind of international game,which is very favourite among sportsmen.

  31. T shirt berkata:

    I learned a lot from your blog here, continue to walk, I will keep an eye on it, and another thing, please contact bestshoptrade@hotmail.com, visit my websiteWholesale brand sports shoes.

  32. Jesse Cramm berkata:

    Love the blog, I’ve listened to datsik like 56 times today. Keep up the blog man!

  33. 588nba berkata:

    I’ve learned a lot from your blog here,Keep on going,I will keep an eye on it,One more thing,plz visit my websites:Chrome Hearts glasses sunglasses

  34. An attention-grabbing discussion is worth comment. I think that you need to write extra on this subject, it may not be a taboo topic however usually individuals are not sufficient to talk on such topics. To the next. Cheers

  35. business website berkata:

    I lately came across your internet site and have been reading loads of posts of yours. I just thought I’d add a quick comment and let you know that you’ve got a actually nice blog. I’ll watch out for updates from you!

  36. hoodia patch 500 berkata:

    hoodia diet pills-pag em portugues

  37. 心尚人 berkata:

    China wholesale fashion choice for ladies who heart still心尚人批发网.

  38. Oliver Ingham berkata:

    been playing MK9 since its been out nonstop! found this pretty funny rap on youtube about it: . if it doesn’t work try this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9uR3YLK0kA

  39. Nice article. last thirty days I uncovered this internet internet site and desired to permit you be conscious that i’ve been gratified, heading via your site’s posts. I should certainly be signing equally as much as the RSS feed and should certainly wait around for another post. best Regards, Mateus

  40. tag heuer mens berkata:

    I wish to show some appreciation to the writer for rescuing me from such a scenario. Just after exploring throughout the world-wide-web and coming across methods which are not productive, I believed my entire life was gone. Existing minus the strategies to the issues you’ve solved all through your main review is a serious case, and those which could have in a negative way affected my career if I had not come across your website. Your own personal training and kindness in taking care of a lot of things was invaluable. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I had not come upon such a solution like this. I can at this moment relish my future. Thanks a lot very much for your specialized and results-oriented guide. I won’t think twice to recommend your web site to any person who should get assistance on this area.

  41. Gerardo Gussler berkata:

    click to download free registry cleaner software

  42. Interesting post and thanks for sharing.Some things in here I have not thought about before.Thanks for making such a cool post which is really very well written.I will be referring all my friends about this.Keep blogging.

  43. I appreciate, cause I found exactly what I was looking for. You’ve ended my 4 day long hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye

  44. sunglasses berkata:

    I keep listening to the newscast speak about getting free online grant applications so I have been looking around for the top site to get one. Could you tell me please, where could i find some?Tom Ford glasses sunglasses

  45. Do you mind if I quote a few of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog? My blog site is in the very same niche as yours and my visitors would truly benefit from some of the information you present here. Please let me know if this ok with you. Thanks!

  46. The root of your writing while appearing agreeable at first, did not sit very well with me personally after some time. Someplace throughout the paragraphs you actually were able to make me a believer but just for a very short while. I however have a problem with your leaps in assumptions and you might do nicely to help fill in all those breaks. In the event you can accomplish that, I would certainly be impressed.

  47. The core of your writing whilst sounding agreeable initially, did not sit very well with me personally after some time. Someplace throughout the sentences you managed to make me a believer but just for a short while. I nevertheless have got a problem with your jumps in logic and one might do nicely to fill in all those gaps. When you actually can accomplish that, I will surely end up being fascinated.

  48. Armierungsgewebe berkata:

    I truly appreciate this post. I have been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You have made my day! Thx again

  49. Fotograf Oslo berkata:

    Wow, superb blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is great, let alone the content!

  50. My wife and i were very happy John managed to do his research through the ideas he obtained in your web site. It is now and again perplexing just to always be handing out information that a number of people may have been trying to sell. And we all consider we’ve got the blog owner to thank for this. The type of illustrations you made, the simple blog menu, the relationships you can aid to create – it’s got all fantastic, and it’s helping our son and our family understand this issue is pleasurable, which is certainly especially essential. Thanks for the whole lot Publicar Articulo!

  51. 公考专家 berkata:

    I cling on to listening to the news lecture about receiving free online grant applications so I have been looking around for the top site to get one. Could you advise me please, where could i get some?公考软件

  52. Thanks for your posting. My spouse and i have often seen that almost all people are desperate to lose weight as they wish to appear slim along with attractive. Having said that, they do not continually realize that there are more benefits for you to losing weight also. Doctors assert that obese people are afflicted by a variety of health conditions that can be instantly attributed to the excess weight. The great news is that people that are overweight as well as suffering from several diseases can help to eliminate the severity of their particular illnesses by simply losing weight. It is easy to see a steady but identifiable improvement with health while even a bit of a amount of fat loss is realized.

  53. online poker real money paypal

  54. MBT berkata:

    I can find many useful imformation in your blog,I thought you did a fantastic job.Can you offer something more about that in the future, plz visit my websites:MBT women sandals

  55. Thank you for your entire hard work on this blog. Ellie delights in making time for research and it’s really easy to understand why. Most of us notice all of the dynamic tactic you provide efficient guidelines on the web site and as well invigorate participation from some others about this matter then our own daughter is now becoming educated so much. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You are doing a good job.

  56. sandals berkata:

    The Summer is coming,our shops have lots of vogue sandals,more discount for you:mbt sandals women

  57. Great Article Keep bolt the Christlike work!

  58. christian berkata:

    There is noticeably a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in features also.I found a great place to learn Cheap Christian Louboutin,hope you can like it.

  59. bags berkata:

    There is obviously a lot to know about this. I assume you made various nice points in features also.I found a great place to learn wholesale handbags,hope you can like it.

  60. ho53103196 berkata:

    Wow,Fantastic article,it’s so helpful to me,and your blog is very good,I’ve learned a lot from your blog here,Keep on going,my friend,I will keep an eye on it,One more thing,thanks for your post!welcome to [url=http://www.findmbtshoes.com/mbt-for-women-shoes-new-mbt-shoes-c-4357_4361.html]mbt[/url].

  61. supra berkata:

    I’ve learned a lot from your blog here,Keep on going,I will keep an eye on it,One more thing,plz visit my websites:Supra Muska

  62. jordan 6 retro berkata:

    When alive ,we may probably offend some people.However, we must think about whether they are deserved offended.

  63. Kasey Cynova berkata:

    “Don’t be pushed by your problems; be led by your dreams.”

  64. Cms Forex berkata:

    Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  65. juicy berkata:

    Hello,I’ve learned a lot from your passages,I will keep an eye on it,come on,and welcome to visit my websites:juicy couture wallet

  66. 5fingers berkata:

    I’ve learned a lot from your blog here,Keep on going,I will keep an eye on it,One more thing,plz visit my websites:Lunette Ray Ban,Lunette Ray Ban

  67. alcachofa berkata:

    Clever people are always the best conversations lexicon.

  68. Viki Hebden berkata:

    “When you come to the end of your rope, tie a knot and hang on.” – Franklin D. Roosevelt

  69. purchase sildenafil citrate online

  70. booky520 berkata:

    I’ve learned a lot from your blog here,Keep on going,I will keep an eye on it,One more thing,plz visit my websites:mbt shoes

  71. Yanira Shedd berkata:

    weight loss date song

  72. I must show thanks to you for bailing me out of this type of problem. After browsing throughout the the net and meeting tips which were not powerful, I was thinking my entire life was gone. Existing devoid of the strategies to the issues you have solved through your main website is a crucial case, as well as the ones that would have badly affected my entire career if I hadn’t discovered your web blog. Your primary skills and kindness in maneuvering every part was valuable. I am not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t come across such a point like this. I’m able to at this point look forward to my future. Thanks so much for this professional and result oriented help. I will not hesitate to endorse your web blog to anyone who would need care about this subject matter.

  73. sunglass berkata:

    I keep listening to the news update speak about getting boundless online grant applications so I have been looking around for the finest site to get one. Could you advise me please, where could i get some?Alain Mikli glasses

  74. sunglasses berkata:

    I cling on to listening to the reports lecture about receiving free online grant applications so I have been looking around for the best site to get one. Could you advise me please, where could i get some?Tom Ford glasses sunglasses

  75. airmaxus berkata:

    The Summer is coming,our shops have many vogue sandals,more discount for you:Nike Air Jordan

  76. news and trends berkata:

    weight loss yoga dvd

  77. No matter the ending is perfect or not, you cannot disappear from my world.

  78. airmaxus berkata:

    The Summer is coming,our store have lots of sandals,more discount for you:Nike Air Jordan

  79. Nike 6.0 berkata:

    The Summer is coming,our shops have many vogue sandals,more discount for you:Nike 6.0 shoes

  80. 隱形眼鏡 berkata:

    悠品網購主營台灣美瞳彩色?>窝坨R批發品牌齊全!台灣省三天內到貨,QQ97516913 msn chenxiaozuo529@hotmail.com yahoo即時通 chenxiaozuo529@yahoo.cn 美瞳

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s