Hubungan Antropologi Dengan Sosiologi

Seorang manusia akan memiliki perilaku yang berbeda dengan manusia lainnya walaupun orang tersebut kembar siam. Ada yang baik hati, suka menolong, serta rajin menbung dan ada pula pyang perilakunya jahat yang suka berbuat kriminal, menyakiti hati. Manusia juga saling berhubungan satu sama  lainnya dengan melakukan interaksi dan membuat kelompok dalam masyarakat. Hal – hal tersebut dapat dikaji dengan pendekatan antropologi dan sosiologi.

Sosiologi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yaitu kata “socius” dan “logos”, dimana socius mempunyai arti kawan atau teman, sedangkan logos berarti kat atau berbicara. Menurut Selo Soemardjan dan Soelaiman Soemardi, sosiologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari struktur sosial dan proses – proses sosial, termasuk perubahan – perubahan sosial. Menurut ahli sosiologi lain yakni Emile Durkheim, sosiologi adalah suatu ilmu yang mempelajari fakta – fakta sosial, yaitu fakta yang mengandung cara bertindak, berpikir, berperasaan yang berada diluar individu dimana fakta – fakta tersebut memiliki kekuatan untuk mengendalikan individu.
Objek sosiologi adalah masyarakat dalam berhubungan dan proses yang dihasilkan dari hubungan tersebut. Tujuan ilmu sosiologi adalah meningkatkan kemampuan seorang untuk menyesuaikan diri  atau beradaptasi dengan lingkungan sosialnya. Pokok bahasan ilmu sosiologi adalah seperti kenyataan atau fakta sosial, tindakan sosial, khayalan sosiologis serta pengungkapan realitas sosial.

Antropologi baraal dari bahasa Yunani “anthropos” yang berarti manusia atau orang , dan “logos” mempunyai arti ilmu. Antropologi mempelajari manusia sebagai makhluk biologis sekaligus makhluk sosial. Antropologi memiliki dua sisi holistik dimana meneliti manusia pada tiap waktu dan tiap dimensi kemanusiaannya. Arus utama inilah yang secara trdisional memisahkan antropologi dari disipin ilmu kamanusiaan lainnya yang menekankan pada perbandingan atau perbedaan budaya antar manusia. Walaupun begitu sisi ini banyak diperdebatkan dan menjadi kontroversi sehingga metode antropologi sekarang seringkali dilakukan pada pemusatan penelian pada penduduk yang merupakan masyarakat tunggal.

Sosiologi dan Antropologi adalah objek ilmu manusia. Antropologi mempelaji budaya pada suatu kelompok masyarakat tertentu; ciri fisiknya, adat istiadat, dan kebudayaan, sedangkan sosiologi lebih menitiberatkan pada manusia dan hubungan sosialnya. Antropologi cenderung ideografik, deskriptif, grounded, dan induktif. Teori dalam antropologi cenderung terbatas pada satu komunitas. Fokus studi antropologi lebih banyak pada nilai – nilai dan perilaku khas sebuah komunitas.

Gbr. Emile Durkheim


Oleh karena itu, banyak yang mengkritik antropologi bukan kategori sains. Para founding Father ilmu sosial semisal Comte dan Durkheim, terobsesi agar ilmu sosial bisa diakui sebagai sains. Karenya mereka menyusun semacam “General Principle”dimana pada dasarnya ada teori universal tentang gejala sosial sebagaimana ada teori tentang alam. Muncul istilah sosiologi untuk menunjukkan bahwa ilmu sosial adalah sebuah sains.
Gbr. Auguste Comte

Demikian Hubungan antara Antropologi dengan Sosiologi. Semoga dapat bermanfaaat, berikan komentar, saran, ataupun kritik yang membangun. Jika dalam penulisan terdapat kesalahan, penulis mohon maaf.
Terima Kasih.



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Pos ini dipublikasikan di Anthropology dan tag . Tandai permalink.

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